Communication and Vision
Communication and Vision
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Disabled Living Foundation, 4th Floor, Jessica House, Red Lion Square, 191 Wandsworth High Street, London, SW18 4LS, Tel: 020 7289 6111, Fax: 020 7266 2922, Helpline: 0300 999 0004 10.00am-4.00pm, Email: email@example.com, Website: www.dlf.org.uk
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Communication and vision
DLF Factsheet Contents
- Introduction 3
- Provision of equipment3
- Statutory provision3
- Other sources of funding5
- Magnifiers including optical and video5
- Electronic reading equipment and audio books8
- Talking books, newspapers and magazines services9
- Using a computer10
- Braille, Moon and tactile conversion11
- Stationery for low vision14
- Telephones for low vision14
- Useful Organisations15
- References & further reading18
All rights reserved. No reproduction or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. Inclusion (including any sponsorship) does not indicate that any item has been recommended or tested. All information is provided without legal responsibility.
There is a large choice of equipment and technology available to help with communication if you are blind or have low vision. This ranges from handheld magnifiers to machines which automatically convert written text to speech. The aim of this factsheet is to provide information on the type of equipment available, give details about the main features to consider and compare alternative equipment solutions. Details of relevant organisations are provided at the end of the factsheet along with the option to view the references/sources of evidence. The print buttons (above to the right) let you choose whether to download and print with or without the references.
For up-to-date product and supplier information, please contact our equipment helpline. They are open Tuesday to Thursday 10am-4.30pm. Tel: 0300 999 0004 (calls charged at your standard landline rate even if you are phoning from a mobile).
Alternatively, you can write to our letter enquiry service or contact us via email at firstname.lastname@example.org To help us give you a concise and informative reply, please provide us with as much detail as possible. Include information on the difficulties you are having and any solutions you have considered, including equipment ideas.
If you have not already done so we recommend that you have an eye test. An eye test can help detect any eye conditions before you notice the effect on your sight and early treatment may prevent your sight from getting worse. Everyone should have their eyes examined by an optician every two years. If you cannot get to a high street optician because a disability prevents you from leaving your home you may be entitled to an eye examination at home. You can search for your nearest optician on the NHS Choices website. www.nhs.uk
If your vision suddenly deteriorates or you have severe pain in your eyes attend your local accident & emergency department as soon as possible.
A low vision assessment can identify a specific type of sight loss such as macular degeneration, glaucoma or Retinitis Pigmentoasa. There may be a specific type of training that can be provided tailored to your sight loss, for example eccentric viewing techniques, steady eye strategy and low vision training for visual field loss.
For more information on the visual field loss training http://www.rnib.org.uk/professionals/health/services/nbmagazine/features...
Try equipment before you buy
If you decide to buy equipment privately it is best to try and compare the different ranges first. You may have an equipment demonstration centre near you where you can visit to view and try out ranges of equipment. You will receive impartial advice to help you choose appropriately. However, centres may not display examples of all the equipment in this factsheet. You will need to contact your nearest centre to find out what they have and to book an appointment. Contact details for your nearest Equipment Demonstration Centre can be found on the Disabled Living Foundation's web page Equipment Demonstration Centres in the UK.
Be cautious of sales people who try to persuade you to buy equipment that may not meet your needs fully or is over-priced. Buying from a company that belongs to a trade association, such as the British Healthcare Trades Association (BHTA) may give you some reassurance. BHTA members have signed up to a code of practice governing standards of customer service (see Useful organisations).
Provision of equipment
Eligibility for sensory communication equipment varies depending on where you live. Many councils apply eligibility criteria for equipment provision, including assistive technology such as communication equipment. Contact your local social services and ask for information on their communication equipment services. They may arrange for you to receive an assessment. This will examine if you meet their criteria to receive the equipment. Some social services may only provide equipment to those with ‘substantial’ or ‘critical’ needs.
If your social services assess you as requiring communication equipment they may also complete a financial assessment. This is to assess the level of any contribution you may be required to make. The charges and how they work vary in different areas.
Use this link to find your local authority equipment assessment services www.gov.uk/apply-home-equipment-for-disabled or use the NHS choices site to search for care services for people with sensory impairments www.nhs.uk/Service-Search/Care-services-for-people-with-sensory-impairments/LocationSearch/1820
National catalogue prescription scheme
In some areas of the country a prescription scheme for equipment is in operation. There is a 'national catalogue' of equipment that may be provided by prescription although local areas can choose which of these items they will include in their schemes. This is part of the Department of Health’s Transforming Community Equipment Services (TCES) programme. There is a small range of sensory communication equipment on the national catalogue that can be provided via prescriptions. If you receive a prescription for one of these items you take your prescription to a local accredited retailer who will provide you with the item. Alternatively you can ‘top-up’ paying extra for an item that does what the specific item prescribed would do but offers extra features or perhaps you prefer its appearance. Thus the scheme is designed to stimulate and encourage choice and control. The national catalogue website sensory aids listing can be viewed at https://www.londonconsortium.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&view=ar... This factsheet will go through a range of equipment and mention when there is a relevant national catalogue specification for that kind of equipment, as it may be provided by prescription.
The supply of equipment depends upon the type and extent of your disability, your age and your circumstances. At present, most reading and writing aids are not regarded as a daily living need, and are therefore not supplied via a community occupational therapist.
If you are partially sighted, and have some usable sight, it is worth asking your GP or hospital consultant for an assessment at a low vision clinic. These services often provide small reading aids, such as magnifiers, or pocket binoculars on a free loan. These are often provided at NHS hospitals, but a few centres are independently run by the Partially Sighted Society (see Useful Organisations). Sometimes smaller items of daily living equipment may be provided by a social worker at your local authority who deals with sensory impairments.
If you are in paid employment and need equipment to assist you with communication at work, you may be entitled to help with the cost and provision of the equipment. This is through the Access-To-Work (ATW) scheme run by the Department for Work and Pensions. It is designed to pay for the additional cost of aids and adaptations needed because of your disability. In some circumstances, a part-time support worker may be funded to perform these tasks if you are unable to do them for yourself. For more information, contact the Disability Employment Adviser (DEA) at your local Job Centre or JobCentrePlus office.
For children and students
If a child has a disability and is under the age of 18 and still at school, access to funding for equipment may be available if he/she has a statement of special educational needs. For further information contact your local education authority.
If you are a student in higher education, you may be entitled to a disabled students’ allowance. It is awarded by your local authority (LA) to cover the additional cost of your disability. If you are a student in further education, you may be entitled to funding through a scheme called the Access To Learning Fund scheme.
For further information on help available to students, contact Disability Rights UK who have taken on some of the services formerly provided by SKILL – the national bureau for students with a disability, who closed in 2011. The website is still active and there is a helpline and email address. (see Useful Organisations).
Other sources of funding
Charitable trusts may sometimes provide funding for equipment. A useful resource is www.turn2us.org.uk , a website that allows you to search for organisations that give grants, including for equipment and other services. You can also refine your search by specific conditions. Please visit their website and search for grant giving organisations using their filter for 'Visual impairments/blindness' such as the Gardner’s Trust for the Blind and Action for Blind people. Charities will only give awards in accordance with a predetermined criteria, so it is important that you carefully select the trusts you apply to.
Most libraries hold directories of suitable funders in their reference section, such as the The Directory of Grant Making Trusts
The Grants for Individuals website is run by the Directory of Social Change and lets subscribers search for grants but is intended for organisations searching for funding for individuals. http://www.grantsforindividuals.org.uk
AbilityNet publish a factsheet Funding for an Adapted Computer System which lists possible grant giving trusts. AbilityNet's factsheet also lists possible sources of second hand and refurbished computer equipment. http://www.abilitynet.org.uk/factsheet/funding-adapted-computer-system
This section describes products that may help with communication if you are blind or partially sighted. These items include magnifiers, stand-alone reading machines, Braille equipment, computer equipment and telephones. The section also suggests alternative ways of accessing text-based information, such as audio books and DAISY formats.
If you have low vision, magnifiers may help by enlarging reading and writing materials. These may include labels, instructions, controls, correspondence, books and magazines. Using the wrong magnifier for a significant period of time can cause eye fatigue and physical problems. For help choosing the right magnification device consult a low vision service. Contact your local social services department or the RNIB Helpline 0303 123 9999 email email@example.com, or use their Sightline directory to locate a voluntary group near you.
Before buying a magnifier consider the magnification and size of the lens. Generally a larger magnifier will have lower magnification, and a high powered magnifier will have a small lens. Higher magnification magnifiers tend to show you less of what you are looking at, perhaps only a word or a few letters at a time (Partially Sighted Society, 2009). Low vision training may help you make the most of a magnifier, especially if you are experiencing the symptoms of macular degeneration which causes a loss of central vision, glaucoma or Retinitis Pigmentoasa (Partially Sighted Society, 2011). For more information visit the RNIB's magnifier page or the Partially Sighted Society www.partsight.org.uk
The most common types of magnifiers available are:
Handheld magnifiers These devices can be used for most everyday needs and are held directly over the object to make it appear larger. The strength of magnification may vary between about 1.5 times (x 1.5) to 12 times (x 12). They are available in a range of physical shapes and sizes. How much bigger you see the item will also depend on the distance you and the magnifier are from the object you are looking at. Some hand-held magnifiers are fitted with a built-in battery powered lamp or LED to improve lighting and enhance the text (see below).
Hand-held magnifiers are not suitable if you have a shaky hand or find a hand-held device difficult to grip and as they are held close to the page they are generally unsuitable for use when writing.
Magnifiers with built-in lighting Handheld optical magnifiers are available with built in lighting from a bulb or LED to help illuminate the area being viewed. Some are available with lighting of different colour temperatures. These colour temperatures are described in Kelvin or K. A lower number (e.g. 2,700K) emits a more yellow light, a higher number (e.g. 6,000K) emits a whiter light. The RNIB state that 4,500K may be more suitable if you have macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy or most other retinal problems while 6,000K may be more suitable if you have retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, Marfans syndrome or severe retinal detachments (RNIB, 2013). A study in 2012 suggested that individuals who chose magnifiers with their preferred colour temperature found the magnified image clearer and could read faster than if they used a magnifier with a colour temperature they did not like(Wolffsohn, et al. 2012). Thus if you are thinking of purchasing an illuminated magnifier it may be worth trying models with different colour temperatures to find out which you prefer.
Magnifiers with a stand used directly on or over the subject If you have weak or shaky hands, using a magnifier on a stand may be ideal for reading and, if the stand is tall enough, also for writing. Some of these magnifiers have an integral light. However, some users find it difficult to find the start of the text they wish to magnify when using a stand magnifier(Guttman, 2009).
Magnifiers with neck cord attachment These products have a neck cord or attachment which enables the magnifier to rest on the chest leaving the hands free. Some incorporate a second inset lens, giving greater magnification.
Bar, dome and sheet magnifiers As with stand magnifiers these may be particularly suitable if you have reduced grip or shaky hands which make holding a handheld magnifier difficult. However, magnifiers used directly on the page can only be used for reading as there is no room for a pen to be placed underneath. Dome magnifiers can help to focus available light which helps make the magnified text appear bright. Bar magnifiers focus on one or two lines of text and therefore may help the user to focus on their position on the page. Sheet magnifiers may be designed as full-sized sheets magnifying the whole page or be smaller. They are sometimes made of plastic and have a relatively low level of magnification, which is determined by the thickness of the lens.
Magnifiers attached to spectacle or headband These magnifiers are built into a spectacle frame, attach or clip to existing spectacles or are supported on a headband. Some lenses are designed to flip away from the eyes when not in use. It is advisable to seek the opinion of a qualified ophthalmologist before additional magnification is added to prescription lenses.
Magnifiers mounted or placed on furniture, floor or wall These magnifiers are designed to be either wall-mounted, attached to furniture by clamp, or free standing on table-top or floor. They facilitate hands-free use. Many are mounted on an adjustable arm allowing variation of angle and position. Some incorporate a light.
Magnifiers to fit over screens Magnifying equipment included in this section is designed to be attached externally over a TV or computer screen.
A range of video magnifiers are available from handheld and portable models, models that connect to computers and/or TV screens and desktop mounted models. Advantages of video magnifiers over traditional magnifiers may include: the ability to vary the magnification (e.g. from 3x to 60x); a variable working distance; a larger magnifier screen/lens for the same effective magnification; contrast reversal and a larger field of view. Studies have suggested that smaller print sizes may be read at faster reading speeds when using video magnifiers compared with traditional magnifiers but that users may be slower at initially finding the text they are looking for(Peterson et al. 2003).
Handheld video magnifiers provide a magnified image on an integral screen. Most offer a choice of contrast modes and may also have the option of saving or 'freezing' the image (image capture). The magnification range for these magnifiers tends to be limited relative to desktop video magnifiers. The RNIB state that as a rough guide if you require text sizes of over 1.8 cm high (72 point) it is unlikely that a pocket or portable video magnifier will display enough characters on its screen for you to read and a TV/PC connecting magnifier or desktop magnifier may be more suitable(RNIB, 2012).
Portable video magnifiers are larger than handheld magnifiers but are still transportable. The screen and camera may be combined or separate units connected by a cable. The camera, which is often similar in shape to a computer mouse, is placed on the original image and can be moved across the paper or object while the magnified image appears on the screen.
Video magnifier systems which provide a magnified image when connected to a television or PC screen are also available. They may consist of a handheld camera, similar in shape to a computer mouse, that rests on the original image and can be moved across the paper or object, or may be mounted resembling a desktop lamp with a head which contains the camera and can be angled to focus on the document. Please check the connection required to the TV as many models require a SCART socket that many newer TVs may not have.
Desktop video magnifiers are stood on a desk or work surface. They have the highest magnification compared to other types of video magnifier. Most have a fixed camera pointed down at a reading table on which printed material can be placed. On most models the table is on rollers so it can be moved up, down and left to right across the page. The magnified image can be zoomed in and out and adjusted for contrast and colour. Some models can superimpose a line or dot on the screen to help make it easier to follow the text being read.
Video magnifiers can be an expensive investment. If you have not used them before we recommend you try similar models first before purchase. You can obtain further advice from the RNIB and may wish to visit their equipment centre in London to try this equipment.
Magnifying apps can be downloaded to compatible smart phones and are designed to give a magnified image on the smart phone's screen. These apps do not have the same performance and features as a handheld video magnifier but if you do use a smart phone you could try an app before deciding whether to invest in a handheld video magnifier. Many of these apps work best on later versions of well known phones with enhanced autofocus cameras. When downloading an app use only well-known app download markets. They significantly reduces the likelihood of downloading an app malware/virus. If you're interested in downloading a particular app, run an online search on its name first (using a search engine) to see what others say about it or to check for malware reports.
Electronic reading equipment and audio books
Text to speech scanning machines Text to speech scanning machines (also called stand-alone reading machines) scan and translate printed text into synthetic speech, you place a book or sheet of text in/on the machine and it will read the text to you. The scanner may be able to read from books, newspapers, magazines and A4 sheets. Some models can be connected to a screen to give a magnified image of the text as well as speech output. Another function that some models have is the ability to connect to a Braille display to give Braille output of the scanned text.
Alternatively, for users who have a PC with speech output software, it may be a cheaper alternative to buy a scanner and some optical character recognition software (OCR). However, this requires setting up and tends to be slower to use than the purpose built machines. There is also software which can be added to certain mobile phones to give them a reading aid function. The software uses the phone's built-in camera to capture an image of text and then converts it to synthetic speech.
For information about this software refer to the RNIB factsheet What is an electronic reading aid? and their Beginner's guide to assistive technology
DAISY players play DAISY audible books and replace the old audio books on cassette format. DAISY is an acronym standing for 'Digital Accessible Information System'. This is a digital reading system that can play/show audio, text and pictures. It makes them accessible to individuals with visual difficulties that affect their ability to read printed material. DAISY material can be played on a stand-alone DAISY player, or by using DAISY software on a computer. Approximately 25 hours of audio can be recorded on a Daisy CD.
Users of DAISY players can navigate through the recording/book by sections, sub-sections, chapter or pages. Bookmarks can be inserted at any point, and there is a 'resume' option which continues playback from the point the reader last reached (rather than going back to the beginning which is what happens with conventional CDs).
For more information read the RNIB's guide to choosing a DAISY player http://www.rnib.org.uk/livingwithsightloss/reading/services/talkingbooks... The RNIB can provide weekly radio or TV listings on a DAISY audio CD so you can hear a list of what is scheduled to be on and what station it will be on. A subscription is required for this service.
Talking books, newspapers and magazines services
Talking books, newspapers and magazines services may be available from:
Your local library Your local library is likely to provide a range of audio books and giant print books to loan for free. Speak to your librarian about how to sign up, what titles they have available, and the length of loan available to you. Find your local library http://local.direct.gov.uk/LDGRedirect/index.jsp?LGSL=437&LGIL=8
RNIB Library The RNIB Library provides a wide range of library and information services for people with sight loss. Resources include talking books, Braille and giant print books, music and online reference services.
RNIB Library: www.rniblibrary.com
Talking Books: www.rnib.org.uk/talking-books-service
RNIB Newsagent The RNIB Newsagent (formerly National Talking Newspapers and Magazines) provides a wide range of newspapers and magazines for people who find standard print inaccessible. It offers a range of newspaper and magazine titles in a variety of accessible formats, including audio CD or USB, DAISY CD, Braille, large print and online.
Project Gutenberg Project Gutenberg is a collection of free electronic books available on the internet. There are currently almost 10,000 books on the site, however, these are books out of copyright, generally pre-1923. Thus they do not include the latest bestsellers but do include classic books from authors such as Conan Doyle, Dante, Dickens, Shakespeare, Twain, Verne and Wells. The books can be downloaded to a computer and read with software, or a selection are available as computer-generated eBooks and will play from the Gutenberg site. www.gutenberg.org
Tablets and ebooks
Many of the above sites will also provide Ebooks. Ebooks can be read on tablets and ereaders which provide options for enlarging the text. A growing range of tablet and ereader accessories are available including mounts for tablets such as the iPad, and switches and switch interfaces for use with tablets and ebook readers. These switches could, for example, be used to turn the page of an ebook.
Using a computer
If you have not learnt to touch type then finding your way around a computer keyboard may be difficult if you have low vision. There are keyboards and accessories which may help you to navigate around the keyboard. You might want to refer to the RNIB's Beginner's guide to keyboard skills which includes advice on self-teaching keyboard audio tutorials and software. http://www.rnib.org.uk/livingwithsightloss/computersphones/guides/pages/...
Keytop stickers & keyboard gloves Keytop stickers can be stuck onto the individual keys on a computer keyboard. The stickers have large lettering printed in a bold typeface with either black lettering on a yellow background, white lettering on a black background or black lettering on a white background to enhance the contrast. Alternatively, flexible keyboard gloves are available to fit over specific keyboards with the same large print, bold high contrast lettering as the stickers.
Large print keyboards These are standard size keyboards with large print on the keys. As with the stickers the keyboards may be available with black letters on a white or yellow background or white letters with a black background.
Keyboards with large keys These are keyboards with keys which are larger than a standard keyboard. They often lack the keys which are not used very often so it is important to check that any keyboard shortcuts (pressing keys together to activate particular functions) you use can still be made on the keyboard. These keyboards may have the same colour options as the above large print keyboards and may either lay the keys out in the standard QWERTY format or alphabetically.
The RNIB has a computer section on Hardware for computers which includes advice on keyboard stickers and large print keyboards. AbilityNet and the British Computer Association of the Blind may also be able to provide advice and services (please see the list of organisations at the end of this factsheet).
Braille is a system of raised dots which people read by feeling with their fingertips. The Braille dots are used to represent words and numbers, punctuation characters and even mathematics, science, and music notation.
Braille has many uses with a wide selection of magazines, fiction and non-fiction books available in Braille as are labels for items such as food cans and packets, medicines, documents, CDs and games including cards, bingo and uno. Bank statements, utility bills and other business letters can be provided in Braille, some restaurants and pub chains offer Braille menus.
A Braille character or "cell" consists of 6 or 8 dots. There are different Braille codes in use: Uncontracted Braille represents each print character as one Braille cell; Contracted Braille is a form of shorthand in which groups of letters may be combined into a single Braille cell. Many experienced Braille users read and write contracted Braille.
Braille requires a fine sense of touch, some individuals with conditions such as diabetes, who have reduced finger sensitivity may find using Braille difficult and may find using Moon easier (see below).
For more information on Braille view the RNIB's Braille information Like with any language Braille takes time to learn, and requires training. The RNIB run courses where people can learn or further develop their Braille reading skills.
Manual Braille equipment
Braille can be produced manually using a style on a portable hand-frames or on a manual desktop machines similar to traditional manual typewriters.
Traditional frames create a dot on the reverse side of the paper so the Braille has to be written back to front. Upward writing frames are now available which create the dots on the front of the piece of paper enabling you to produce Braille from left to right as you would read the code.
Some manual machines for creating Braille are portable, others are designed as desktop machines, similar to traditional manual typewriters. They have six keys to produce the Braille (one key for each dot in a Braille cell). Some Braille machines can use standard A5 and other standard paper sizes. Good practice indicates that Braille should always be written on Braille paper which ensures that the Braille produced will be far more durable.
Some simple manual Braille machines can produce Braille on Dymo tape to create labels. Alternatively, many people use an audio labeller whereby they can affix a small label or dot to an item, use the device to record the information then use the device to play back the information.
Braille computer equipment
Braille can also be produced on a computer using translation software and a Braille embosser instead of a printer. A keyboard with Braille keys instead of the standard QWERTY keys can be used although some users may prefer to continue using a standard keyboard. A Braille display can be linked to a computer to enable a user to read by touch what is on the screen. If portable computing is required Braille notetakers are machines with word processing features similar to an electric word processor or laptop but with a Braille keyboard and /or Braille display.
Braille embossers print Braille onto special Braille paper, from a computer. They are connected to the computer like a text printer or can be connected to notetakers. The paper is thicker and more expensive than standard printer paper. Software is required to convert text to Braille before it is printed/embossed (known as Braille translation software). We list some examples http://www.livingmadeeasy.org.uk/products.php?groupid=3815 For more information on this software, refer to the RNIB's information page: 'Braille fonts'. http://www.rnib.org.uk/livingwithsightloss/reading/how/braille/writing/p...
Embossers can be noisy, if an embosser is going to be used regularly and cannot be kept in a room away from people, an acoustic hood or soundproof case is recommended. Before purchasing a Braille embosser consider issues such as the noise, the speed the embosser is capable of printing at, and whether you need the printer to be portable.
Braille keyboards are computer keyboards with Braille keys replacing the traditional QWERTY keyboard keys.
Braille displays are tactile devices that are usually placed in front of your computer keyboard. They provide you with the means to read the contents of your computer screen by touch in Braille. Braille displays have a number of cells and each cell has 6 or 8 pins. These pins are electronically moved up and down, to create a Braille version of the characters that appear on the computer screen. Each Braille cell represents one character from the screen. An 80 cell Braille display represents approximately one line of text on a screen (Hersh and Johnson, 2008). Before you purchase a Braille display, try several to ensure that the one you choose is comfortable to use and provides the functions you need. Depending on your requirements using the speech output facility of a screen reader will be a cheaper option than harnessing a Braille display to it. Many screen readers offer two outputs: speech and Braille. We recommend you speak to the RNIB for advice.
Notetakers are portable devices that can be used as a word processor to take notes, record and organise information. Some may also have features to provide a calendar, phone book, the internet, e-mail and run windows based operating systems. They feedback information by speech output or a Braille display.
Moon is a system of raised lines and curves that people read by feeling with their fingertips. Moon characters are fairly large and many characters have a strong resemblance to their print equivalent. Consequently individuals who lose their sight later in life, or individuals who do not have sensitive touch in their fingertips may find Moon easier to learn then Braille.
Moon can be used to label items such as food cans and packets, medicines, documents, CDs etc. There are books available which are written in moon although there are many more books available in Braille than moon. As Moon is not so well known it is rarely offered as an alternative format for items such as statements, bills and menus.
Moon can be produced using portable hand frames or a computer with a Braille embosser and translation software. For more information on Moon read the RNIB's Moon information or visit the moon literacy website www.moonliteracy.org.uk/
Translation into Braille or tactile Display
There is a range of equipment and a number of service providers who can convert printed or photocopied material for example, maps and diagrams into audio, large print, Braille or a tactile raised image which can be interpreted by touch. It is difficult to create tactile pictures that are detailed without making them confusing to blind readers. Both the creaters of the image and the users require training in techniques and image reading. For advice on converting an image to a tactile display visit the 'Accessible Images' section of the RNIB website. Further information is available on the RNIB Tactile Graphics page
Writing frames into which a piece of paper can be inserted are available with an elasticated cord acting as line guides. Paper, envelopes or documents can be inserted into the flat frame to keep you writing within the lines. They consist of either plastic frames or string lines (which are more flexible being especially helpful when writing in small case letters with tails such as g, j, p.) There is a specification relevant to these writing frames on the national catalogue which operates equipment prescriptions in certain parts of the country (see the introduction) with the code SAV05
Reading Guides are plastic cards with cut out rows to allow lines of print to be read without glare or confusion from the surround print. They come in various sizes. There is a specification relevant to these reading guides on the national catalogue which operates equipment prescriptions in certain parts of the country (see the introduction) with the code SAV07.
There are also options of higher contrasting lined paper to make the lines more obvious for those with low vision, as well as raised lines so they can be felt by the writer.
Telephones and accessories for blind or partially sighted users
Telephones with large keys and/or enlarged numbers may be helpful if you have low vision. Some models have keypad buttons with varying shapes to facilitate identification by touch and some have large LCD displays. These features are available on corded, cordless and mobile telephones. Most push-button telephone keypads have a raised dot on the central five key to help orientate a user relying on touch. Some of the phones in this group have a number of 'one-touch' memory buttons that dial stored telephone numbers. It may help if other function keys, such as memory keys are separated from and/or shaped differently to the number keys
For more information read the RNIB Landline telephone factsheet
Mobile phones are available with an enlarged keypad, an emergency button, or a high contrast display with a large font. Some mobile phones can have extra software installed to add features that may aid ease of use. These features include screen readers which convert the contents of the screen into speech (reading out your phone book, reading received messages, stating which key you pressed), screen magnifiers and talking GPS software(RNIB, 2013b).
For more information on mobile phones and vision refer to the RNIB's information on Mobile phones and Mobile phone software
Telephones are available that speak the numbers entered when dialling so you can confirm you have pressed the intended keys. Some models can also speak out the number of the caller when receiving an incoming call and/or have a talking phonebook and speech guidance to the menu settings. Models with a LCD display showing callers telephone numbers or spoken announcement of the number of a caller require subscription to a caller ID service.
Accessories are also available which dial the telephone for you including voice operated diallers, they are used WITH your existing telephone. Voice diallers allow you to dial a number by speaking the name of the person you wish to call.
PO Box 94, Warwick
Warwickshire, CV34 5WS
Tel: (01926) 312 847
Fax: (01926) 407 425
Helpline 0800 269 545
The charity AbilityNet provide information and advice for people with a wide range of disabilities to help them access computer technology. They have a helpline and a comprehensive range of factsheets giving guidance on a range of computer topics: www.abilitynet.org.uk/athome_factsheets
New Loom House
101 Back Church Lane
London, E1 1LU
Tel: 020 7702 2141
Fax: 020 7680 4048
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org (and email@example.com)
The British Healthcare Trades Association (BHTA) is the UK's largest healthcare association. Members of the BHTA sign up to a code of practice designed to ensure the public can trust that members will give a good service, and a high standard of behaviour.
58 - 72 John Bright Street
Tel: 0845 643 9811
This is a self-help organisation of blind and partially sighted computer users who offer a range of and promote computer-related resources to both their members and non-members.
10 Albion Place
Kent ME14 5DZ
Tel: 01622 754 757
Fax: 01622 751 725
The British Wireless for the Blind Fund provides high quality, easy to use audio equipment which has been specially designed and adapted for listeners living with sight loss.
Edinburgh, EH6 6SP
Tel: 0845 456 8211
Fax: 0845 456 8211
Communication Matters is a UK-wide organisation committed to supporting people of all ages who find communication difficult because they have little or no clear speech.
National Centre for Deafblindness
John and Lucille van Gesst Place
Cygnet Road, Hampton
Peterborough, PE6 8FD
Helpline: 0800 132 320
Tel: 01733 358 100
Fax: 01733 358 356
DeafblindUK provide advice and information for people who have a combined sight and hearing loss, their carers, and professionals including advice on equipment and communication methods.
IT Can Help is a network of volunteers who offer free local computer assistance to disabled people. They diagnose and fix most computer related problems; install and set up hardware, software, internet, email and accessibility settings. They also give impartial advice on IT equipment and software.
Tel: 0844 477 4966
Fax: 0844 477 4969
The Partially sighted society provide information, advice, equipment or clear print material for people with a visual impairment.
105 Judd Street
London WC1 9NE
Tel: 020 7388 1266
Fax: 020 7388 2034
Helpline: 0303 123 9999
The RNIB are the UK's leading charity for information, support and advice for people with sight loss. You may wish to visit one of their resource centres to try equipment. There are centres in London, Edinburgh, Belfast, Birmingham, Bristol & Liverpool. View a full list of RNIB centres: www.rnib.org.uk/aboutus/contactdetails/Pages/contactdetails.aspx
Disability Rights UK
12 City Forum
250 City Road
London EC1V 8AF
Helpline: 0800 328 5050
Fax: 020 7247 8765
Skill closed in 2011 but the website is maintained with useful resources and Disability Rights UK has been supported by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) to fill part of the gap with the above helpline and email.
41 East Street
Tel: 01372 755 000
Providing support, advice and/or assessment for individuals who are blind or partially sighted and have additional disabilities
Released November 2013, to be reviewed by November 2016, Version 2
References Show references
Guttman, C. (2009) Many options available to patients with low vision. Optometry Times 10 p26-27 - (Type 1)
Hersh, M. and Johnson, M. (Eds.) (2008) Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired and Blind People. Springer-Verlag: London - (Type 3)
Peterson, R., Wolffsohn, J., Rubinstein, M. and Lowe, J. (2003) Benefits of Electronic Vision Enhancement Systems (EVES) for the Visually Impaired. American Journal of Ophthalmology 136(6) p1129-1135 - (Type 3)
RNIB (2012) Video magnifiers shopping guide. Available from http://www.rnib.org.uk/aboutshop/choosing/pages/video_magnifiers.aspx [Accessed 24th July 2013] - (Type 2)
RNIB (2013) Choosing your magnifier. Available from http://www.rnib.org.uk/livingwithsightloss/Documents/Magnifier_guide_PDF... [Accessed 2nd September 2013] - (Type 2)
RNIB (2013b) Accessible mobile phones. Available from http://www.rnib.org.uk/livingwithsightloss/computersphones/mobilephones/... [Accessed 2nd September 2013] - (Type 2)
The Partially Sighted Society (2009) Hand Magnifiers. Available from: http://www.partsight.org.uk/pdfs/Hand magnifiers.pdf [Accessed 24th July 2013] - (Type 2)
The Partially Sighted (2011) Eccentric Viewing Techniques. Available from: http://www.partsight.org.uk/pdfs/Eccentric%20Viewing%20Technique.pdf [Accessed 12th October 2013] - (Type 2)
Wolffsohn, J., Palmer, E., Rubinstein, M. and Eperjesi, F. (2012) Effect of light-emitting diode colour temperature on magnifier reading performance of the visually impaired. Clinical and Experimental Optometry 95 (5) p510-514 - (Type 3)
For more information on the Types of Evidence, please visit http://www.livingmadeeasy.org.uk/scenario.php?csid=276
If you would like further advice regarding daily living equipment related to choosing equipment for everyday living you could try relevant sections of AskSARA. AskSARA is our free online guided advice tool. AskSARA will ask you questions about yourself and your environment and then offer relevant advice, product suggestions and supplier details.
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